King Richard the Thirdgrew up in the turbulent years of the War of the Roses,the English crown fought between the House of York, symbolized by the White Rose, and the House of Lancaster, the Red Rose, Sovereigns on the throne, vanish rapidly, ironically, two branches of the same Plantagenet family.
Shakespeare, Act 5, Scene 9, painting by Nicolai Abildgaard. He confides to the audience: She asks them to set down the "honourable load — if honour may be shrouded in a hearse ", and then laments the fate of the house of Lancaster.
Despite initially hating him, Anne is won over by his pleas of love and repentance and agrees to marry him. When she leaves, Richard exults in having won her over despite all he has done to her, and tells the audience that he will discard her once she has served her purpose.
The atmosphere at court is poisonous: Queen Margaret curses Richard and the rest who were present. The nobles, all Yorkistsreflexively unite against this last Lancastrianand the warning falls on deaf ears. Richard orders two murderers to kill Clarence in the tower. Clarence, meanwhile, relates a dream to his keeper.
The dream includes vivid language describing Clarence falling from an imaginary ship as a result of Gloucester, who had fallen from the hatches, striking him. Under the water Clarence sees the skeletons of thousands of men "that fishes gnawed upon".
He also sees "wedges of gold, great anchors, heaps of pearl, inestimable stones, unvalued jewels". All of these are "scattered in the bottom of the sea". Clarence adds that some of the jewels were in the skulls of the dead.
After Clarence falls asleep, Brakenbury, Lieutenant of the Tower of London, enters and observes that between the titles of princes and the low names of commoners, there is nothing different but the "outward fame", meaning that they both have "inward toil" whether rich or poor.
The murderers imply Clarence is a hypocrite because, as one says, "thou One murderer insists Gloucester himself sent them to perform the bloody act, but Clarence does not believe him. He recalls the unity of Richard Duke of York blessing his three sons with his victorious arm, bidding his brother Gloucester to "think on this and he will weep".
Next, one of the murderers explains that his brother Gloucester hates him, and sent them to the Tower to kill him. Eventually, one murderer gives in to his conscience and does not participate, but the other killer stabs Clarence and drowns him in "the Malmsey butt within".
The first act closes with the perpetrator needing to find a hole to bury Clarence. Edward IV soon dies, leaving as Protector his brother Richard, who sets about removing the final obstacles to his accession.
He has Lord Rivers murdered to further isolate the Queen and to put down any attempts to have the Prince crowned right away. These Richard arrests, and eventually beheads, and then has a conversation with the Prince and his younger brother, the Duke of York.
The two princes outsmart Richard and match his wordplay and use of language easily.
Richard is nervous about them, and the potential threat they represent. The young prince and his brother are coaxed by Richard into an extended stay at the Tower of London. The prince and his brother the Duke of York prove themselves to be extremely intelligent and charismatic characters, boldly defying and outsmarting Richard and openly mocking him.
Assisted by his cousin BuckinghamRichard mounts a campaign to present himself as the true heir to the throne, pretending to be a modest, devout man with no pretensions to greatness. The other lords are cajoled into accepting Richard as king, in spite of the continued survival of his nephews the Princes in the Tower.
His sleep having been haunted by the ghosts of those he has murdered, he wakes to the realisation that he is alone in the world and death is imminent. Richard asks Buckingham to secure the death of the princes, but Buckingham hesitates.
Richard then recruits Sir James Tyrrellwho kills both children. When Richard denies Buckingham a promised land grant, Buckingham turns against Richard and defects to the side of Henry, Earl of Richmondwho is currently in exile.
Later, the Duchess applies this lesson and curses her only surviving son before leaving. The increasingly paranoid Richard loses what popularity he had.The True Tragedy of Richard III is an anonymous Elizabethan history play on the subject of Richard III of England. It has attracted the attention of scholars of English Renaissance drama principally for the question of its relationship with Shakespeare's Richard III.
Buy a cheap copy of The Tragedy of King Richard the Third book by William Shakespeare. The final play in Shakespeare's masterly dramatization of the strife between the Houses of York and Lancaster, Richard III offers a stunning portrait of an Free shipping over $/5(5).
See a complete list of the characters in Richard III and in-depth analyses of Richard III, The Princes, and Margaret.
In The Tragedy of King Richard III, Shakespeare chronicles the rise and fall of one of history’s most repellent, and the theater’s most mesmerizing, figures. This Norton Critical Edition of Richard III is based on the First Quarto () edition of the play with interpolations from the First Folio ().
The Tragedy of King Richard III: The Oxford Shakespeare The Tragedy of King Richard III (Oxford World's Classics) Paperback William Shakespeare out of 5 stars Reviews: Shakespeare's Richard III is intended (like the Thomas More hatchet job on which it's based) to legitimize the current ruling dynasty of England--which had assumed power following this final victory in the war of the Roses--but this propaganda purpose tends to work against the effectiveness of the drama.