Chapter 1 A Time of Transition Many artists shared the curiosity about nature, society, institutions, human relations, and the past that was fostered by the Enlightenment and the Industrial Revolution. They began to question inherited ideas and traditions, seeking instead a concrete and rational understanding of the world based on experience and facts.
Variant readings Through the proper application of textual criticism, comparing all the available manuscripts with one another, we are able to confidently reconstruct the original reading.
Let's briefly compare the numbers on variant readings. The New Testament contains approximately 20, lines, of which 40 lines are in question.
The Iliad contains approximately 15, lines, of which lines are in question. This equals five percent. That's ten times more variants than the New Testament in a document which is only three-quarters its length. The sheer number of extant NT manuscripts we possess narrows tremendously the margin of doubt on the correct reading of the original documents known as autographs.
An example of a fairly typical variant reading: Many of these variants involve nothing more than a missing letter in a word, a misspelling, or a reversal of the order of two words as seen above in 2.
Some may involve the absence of a word; but of all the variants in the NT, it should be noted that only about 50 have any real significance, and that not one essential point of Christian doctrine rests upon a disputed reading.
Evidence from archaeology The Dead Sea Scrolls, uncovered inincluded an ancient copy of the scroll of Isaiah. This scroll, dating to approximately B. The remaining five percent consisted chiefly of obvious slips of the pen or variations in spelling.
Prior to that discovery, the earliest manuscript of Isaiah was the Masoretic Text, dating to A.
Realize, then, the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls moved the dating back more than a thousand years! And that without any appreciable change in the text. Nelson Glueck, renowned Jewish archaeologist, wrote: Albright, one of the world's most renowned archaeologists, stated: Discovery after discovery has established the accuracy of innumerable details, and has brought increased recognition to the value of the Bible as a source of history.
Evidence from early Christian writers J. All but eleven verses of the New Testament are found in the works of second and third century writers.
In addition to the many thousands of NT manuscripts, there are over 86, quotations of the NT in the early church fathers, and quotations in thousands of early lectionaries worship books.
We Have an Authentic, Reliable Biblical Text Let us state again that, in spite of having come under attack a century and a half ago as an unreliable historical record, over the past fifty to seventy five years, the biblical narrative has been consistently corroborated by archaeological discoveries remember, too, that a century and a half ago the field of archaeology had scarcely emerged.
Archaeologist Joseph Free has said, "Archaeology has confirmed countless passages which had been rejected by critics as unhistorical or contrary to known facts.Presents a framework of key events in the 20 th century in a user-friendly format.
The World in the Twentieth Century is a brief, straightforward text written so instructors may guide their students through learning and using the historical events of the 20 th century/5(4).
Twentieth-century poets have grappled with how to "make it new," as Pound declared modern poets must, how to reinvent poetic forms in an American way, how to write original, authentic American and modern poetry.
Find great deals for The World in the 20th Century: A Thematic Approach by Stephanie A. Hallock (, Paperback, Revised). Shop with confidence on eBay! Task 2: A Thematic Study in Twentieth Century History Introduction This essay will attempt to answer the question: “Did changes in anti-Semitism behaviour happen at the same rate over the period in Germany?” I will demonstrate that changes in anti-semitism behaviour did not occur at the same rate during the period A variety of approaches to classical antiquity emerged during the final decades of the 18th century.
The specific choice and treatment of classical subjects depended as much on the political climate in which an artist worked and on the requirements of patronage as it .
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