An examination of socrates and his works

As an infantryman, Socrates showed great physical endurance and courage, rescuing the future Athenian leader Alcibiades during the siege of Potidaea in B. Despite his intellect and connections, he rejected the sort of fame and power that Athenians were expected to strive for.

An examination of socrates and his works

The extant sources agree that Socrates was profoundly ugly, resembling a satyr more than a man—and resembling not at all the statues that turned up later in ancient times and now grace Internet sites and the covers of books.

Socrates | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

He had wide-set, bulging eyes that darted sideways and enabled him, like a crab, to see not only what was straight ahead, but what was beside him as well; a flat, upturned nose with flaring nostrils; and large fleshy lips like an ass.

Socrates let his hair grow long, Spartan-style even while Athens and Sparta were at warand went about barefoot and unwashed, carrying a stick and looking arrogant. Something was peculiar about his gait as well, sometimes described as a swagger so intimidating that enemy soldiers kept their distance.

He was impervious to the effects of alcohol and cold weather, but this made him an object of suspicion to his fellow soldiers on campaign. We can safely assume an average height since no one mentions it at alland a strong build, given the active life he appears to have led.

An examination of socrates and his works the iconic tradition of a pot-belly, Socrates and his companions are described as going hungry Aristophanes, Birds — In the late fifth century B. Although many citizens lived by their labor in a wide variety of occupations, they were expected to spend much of their leisure time, if they had any, busying themselves with the affairs of the city.

Other forms of higher education were also known in Athens: One of the things that seemed strange about Socrates is that he neither labored to earn a living, nor participated voluntarily in affairs of state. Rather, he embraced poverty and, although youths of the city kept company with him and imitated him, Socrates adamantly insisted he was not a teacher Plato, Apology 33a—b and refused all his life to take money for what he did.

The strangeness of this behavior is mitigated by the image then current of teachers and students: Because Socrates was no transmitter of information that others were passively to receive, he resists the comparison to teachers.

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Rather, he helped others recognize on their own what is real, true, and good Plato, Meno, Theaetetus —a new, and thus suspect, approach to education.

He was known for confusing, stinging and stunning his conversation partners into the unpleasant experience of realizing their own ignorance, a state sometimes superseded by genuine intellectual curiosity.

Socrates claimed to have learned rhetoric from Aspasia of Miletus, the de facto spouse of Pericles Plato, Menexenus ; and to have learned erotics from the priestess Diotima of Mantinea Plato, Symposium. Socrates was unconventional in a related respect.

Athenian citizen males of the upper social classes did not marry until they were at least thirty, and Athenian females were poorly educated and kept sequestered until puberty, when they were given in marriage by their fathers.

It was assumed among Athenians that mature men would find youths sexually attractive, and such relationships were conventionally viewed as beneficial to both parties by family and friends alike.

A degree of hypocrisy or denialhowever, was implied by the arrangement: What was odd about Socrates is that, although he was no exception to the rule of finding youths attractive Plato, Charmides d, Protagoras a—b; Xenophon, Symposium 4.

Socrates also acknowledged a rather strange personal phenomenon, a daimonion or internal voice that prohibited his doing certain things, some trivial and some important, often unrelated to matters of right and wrong thus not to be confused with the popular notions of a superego or a conscience.

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The implication that he was guided by something he regarded as divine or semi-divine was all the more reason for other Athenians to be suspicious of Socrates.

Socrates was usually to be found in the marketplace and other public areas, conversing with a variety of different people—young and old, male and female, slave and free, rich and poor—that is, with virtually anyone he could persuade to join with him in his question-and-answer mode of probing serious matters.

Socrates pursued this task single-mindedly, questioning people about what matters most, e. He did this regardless of whether his respondents wanted to be questioned or resisted him.

And what I said before, how much hatred there is against me and from many people, you well know what is the truth. And this is what will convict me, if I am convicted, not Meletus nor Anytus, but the prejudice and envy of many.
The rule of law means that it is not left to the discretion of those in executive power to decide what actions to approve and what actions to condemn.
Plato: Phaedo | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy For ordering information, please click here.

Who was Socrates really?The trial of Socrates ( BC) was held to determine the philosopher’s guilt of two charges: asebeia (impiety) against the pantheon of Athens, and corruption of the youth of the city-state; the accusers cited two impious acts by Socrates: “failing to acknowledge the gods that the city acknowledges” and “introducing new deities”..

The death sentence of Socrates was the legal. The son of wealthy and influential Athenian parents, Plato began his philosophical career as a student of srmvision.com the master died, Plato travelled to Egypt and Italy, studied with students of Pythagoras, and spent several years advising the ruling family of srmvision.comally, he returned to Athens and established his own school of philosophy at the Academy.

Socrates (— B.C.E.).

An examination of socrates and his works

Socrates is one of the few individuals whom one could say has so-shaped the cultural and intellectual development of the world that, . Socrates (c. - B.C.) was a hugely important Greek philosopher from the Classical period (often known as the Socratic period in his honor).

Unlike most of the Pre-Socratic philosophers who came before him, who were much more interested in establishing how the world works, Socrates was more concerned with how people should behave, and so was perhaps the first major philosopher of Ethics.

Plato and his dialogues by Bernard SUZANNE "The safest general characterization of the European philosophical tradition is that it consists of a series of footnotes to Plato". The lord whose oracle is in Delphi neither speaks nor conceals but gives a sign. Heraclitus of Ephesus, quoted by Plutarch, De Pythiae oraculis 21, E, The Presocratic Philosophers, G.S.

Kirk & J.E. Raven, Cambridge, , p Unless Plato had already written some short dialogues to illustrate Socrates' technique of questioning (like the Euthyphro), the Apology of Socrates is the earliest.

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