Pre-democratic political systems of various kinds, in fuedal systems and ancient empires.
Education in the 20th century Social and historical background International wars, together with an intensification of internal stresses and conflicts among social, racial, and ideological groups, characterized the 20th century and had profound effects on education. Some of the changes that had far-reaching effects were the rapidly spreading prosperity but widening gaps between rich and poor, an immense increase in world population but a declining birth rate in Western countries, the growth of large-scale industry and its dependence on science and technological advancement, the increasing power of both organized labour and international business, and the enormous influence of both technical and sociopsychological advances in communication, especially as utilized in mass media.
Other pivotal changes included challenges to accepted values, such as those supported by religion; changes in social relations, especially toward versions of group and individual equality; and an explosion of knowledge affecting paradigms as well as particular information.
These and other changes marked a century of social and political swings toward a more dynamic and less categorical resolution. The institutional means of handling this uncertain world were to accept more diversity while maintaining basic forms and to rely on management efficiency to ensure practical outcomes.
The two World Wars weakened the military and political might of the larger European powers.
One consequence of this was a great increase in the quantity of education provided. Attempts were made to eradicate illiteracy, and colleges and schools were built everywhere. The growing affluence of masses of the population in high-income areas in North America and Europe brought about, particularly after World War IIa tremendous demand for secondary and higher education.
Most children stayed at school until 16, 17, or even 18 years of age, and a substantial fraction spent at least two years at college.
The number of universities in many countries doubled or trebled between andand the elaboration of the tertiary level continued thereafter. This growth was sustained partly by the industrial requirements of modern scientific technology. New methods, processes, and machines were continually introduced.
Old skills became irrelevant; new industries sprang up. In addition, the amount of scientific—as distinct from merely technical—knowledge grew continually.
Researchers, skilled workers, and high-level professionals were increasingly in demand. The processing of information underwent revolutionary change. The educational response was mainly to develop technical collegesto promote adult education at all levels, to turn attention to part-time and evening courses, and to provide more training and education within the industrial enterprises themselves.
The adoption of modern methods of food production diminished the need for agricultural workers, who headed for the cities. Urbanizationhowever, brought problems: The poorest remained in those centres, and it became difficult to provide adequate education.
The radical change to large numbers of disrupted families, where the norm was a single working parent, affected the urban poor extensively but in all cases raised an expectation of additional school services.
Differences in family background, together with the cultural mix partly occasioned by change of immigration patterns, required teaching behaviour and content appropriate to a more heterogeneous school population.
Major intellectual movements Influence of psychology and other fields on education The attempt to apply scientific method to the study of education dates back to the German philosopher Johann Friedrich Herbartwho called for the application of psychology to the art of teaching.
But not until the end of the 19th century, when the German psychologist Wilhelm Max Wundt established the first psychological laboratory at the University of Leipzig inwere serious efforts made to separate psychology from philosophy.
William Jamesoften considered the father of American psychology of educationbegan about to lay the groundwork for his psychophysiological laboratory, which was officially founded at Harvard University in Interests must be awakened and broadened as the natural starting points of instruction.
They asked the teacher to help educate heroic individuals who would project daring visions of the future and work courageously to realize them. Thorndike is credited with the introduction of modern educational psychologywith the publication of Educational Psychology in Thorndike attempted to apply the methods of exact science to the practice of psychology.
James and Thorndike, together with the American philosopher John Deweyhelped to clear away many of the fantastic notions once held about the successive steps involved in the development of mental functions from birth to maturity.
Eminent researchers in the field advanced knowledge of behaviour modification, child developmentand motivation.During the late 19th century, changes in industrial production, trade, and imperialism led to a world economy.
In this lesson, learn about the important factors that contributed to this system. Perry discusses the political culture of China during the 20 th century.
She mostly deals with the last 20 years of history including the rise of Deng to power. However, she does support her thoughts by looking back at the beginning of the Communist Party at which she discusses the .
Interpreting the 20th Century: The Struggle Over Democracy is rated out of 5 by Rated 5 out of 5 by NicC from The 20th Century: Struggle Over Democracy Between the bookends of the 19th century Enlightenment Project and the 21th century reaches of Globalization -- the struggle over democracy is fully documented as a dynamic world history.
Between and , Russia's population doubled, but it remained chiefly rural well into the twentieth century.
Russia's population growth rate from to was the fastest of all the major powers except for the United States. In the late 19th century the Russian people were ruled by the Romanov srmvision.com Tsar (Czar) took the title 'Emperor and Autocrat of all Russia' and imposed autocratic rule - government by one man.
This is a timeline of Russian history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in Russia and its predecessor states. To read about the background to .