Female genital mutilation and Prevalence of female genital mutilation by country Until the s FGM was widely known as female circumcision, which gave the erroneous impression that it was equivalent in severity and health effects to male circumcision. In fact, FGM has only got adverse health effects and is almost always more extensive than male circumcision. Ancient Egyptian religion Figures showing a male circumcision scene, based on a wall carving found in SakkaraEgypt  FGM is concentrated in what Gerry Mackie called an "intriguingly contiguous" zone in Africa—east to west from Somalia to Senegal, and north to south from Egypt to Tanzania. Indeed, they led the way in referring to it as mutilation; from the Kenya Missionary Council called it the "sexual mutilation of women", following the lead of Marion Scott Stevensona Church of Scotland missionary.
History of Circumcision This index page links to material relating to the origin and history of male circumcision. Material is indexed in chronological order of publication. Introduction The practice of male genital mutilation is far older than recorded history. Certainly, it is far older than the Biblical account of Abraham Genesis It seems to have originated in eastern Africa long before this time.
One theory postulates that circumcision began as a way of "purifying" individuals and society by reducing sexuality and sexual pleasure. Human sexuality was seen as dirty or impure in some societies; hence cutting off the pleasure-producing parts was the obvious way to "purify" someone.
It is now known that the male foreskin, or prepuce, is the principal location of erogenous sensation in the human male see Anatomy. Removal of the prepuce substantially reduces erogenous sensation.
In this procedure the foreskin was stripped away from the glans, with which it is fused in the infant See Normal. In a painful procedure known today as a synechotomy, more foreskin was removed than before and the injury was correspondingly greater.
Although Judaism mandated circumcision, not all Jews wanted to be circumcised. Several methods of foreskin restoration were devised and practiced. This lessened the ugly appearance of the bare exposed circumcised penis.
The Christians took a strong stand against circumcision in the first century. Christians rejected circumcision at the Council at Jerusalem.
Paul, the apostle to the gentiles, taught parents that they should not circumcise their children. Paul warned Titus to beware of the "circumcision group. Moscucci reports that circumcision was imposed in an attempt to prevent masturbation.
The American cultural practice of circumcision became nearly universal in South Korea after the Korean War of The incidence of neonatal circumcision in the United Kingdom declined sharply to a very low level after publication of this article after the procedure was delisted by the NHS.
America waited another 20 years before addressing the problem of non-therapeutic circumcision. Preston established that there is no therapeutic or prophylactic benefit to circumcision. He also cited "undesirable psychologic, sexual, and medico-legal difficulties.
The incidence of male neonatal circumcision in the U. The matter rested there untilwhen retrospective data collected from U. Army medical records by Thomas Wiswell, M.
This created new controversy about the value of neonatal circumcision.“Circumcision” was the ceremony of cutting off the foreskin of a male's penis. This was a common rite among many people in the ancient Near East, though the reasons why are not clear.
Only three first world nations still circumcise a majority of boys: South Korea, where it is usually performed between the ages of 10 and 16, Israel, on the Biblical 8th day, and USA, where the reasons for the prevalence of the practice are unclear.
3rd Century writer Tertullian is the first to mention baptism unambiguously for (young) children and infants, though he recommends delaying it until they can understand and ask for it. See Tertullian, Homily on Baptism, ed. & trans. by Evans, Ernest (London: SPCK, ): 37, The Jews adopted circumcision as a religious ritual 10,13,16,20 and preserved this prehistoric practice into modern times. 11,20 The circumcision of Abraham removed only the very tip that extended beyond the glans penis. 11,20,26,31 Moses and his sons were not circumcised. “Circumcision” was the ceremony of cutting off the foreskin of a male's penis. This was a common rite among many people in the ancient Near East, though the reasons why are not clear.
Circumcision was a common practice among the British middle and wealthy classes from the s to at least the s. Research showing protection against syphilis, penile cancer and the improvement in hygiene led to it becoming a widely recommended for hygienic and health reasons.
The Jews adopted circumcision as a religious ritual 10,13,16,20 and preserved this prehistoric practice into modern times. 11,20 The circumcision of Abraham removed only the very tip that extended beyond the glans penis. 11,20,26,31 Moses and his sons were not circumcised.
The Jews adopted circumcision as a religious ritual 10,13,16,20 and preserved this prehistoric practice into modern times. 11,20 The circumcision of Abraham removed only the very tip that extended beyond the glans penis.
11,20,26,31 Moses and his sons were not circumcised. In the first, Moses did not practise circumcision, and the custom was abandoned under his leadership (Joshua 5: ). In the second his wife is made to conform to the practice (Exodus 4: ).